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The traits of those groups of people usually have an evaluative connotation that makes them view things either positively or negatively (Oakes and Reynolds 1997: 54).
However, there is always a looming danger that stereotypical perceptions can become crystallised into prejudices (Rieger 2006: 280), since these attributes frequently acquire a negative connotation.
The first one provides a brief introduction to the concept of stereotypes, the second is devotedto the study of the role of translation inthe representation of gender stereotypes in the cases of two female characters, Fiona and Lola, and two male characters, Donkey and Lenny; and the third one presents the conclusions drawn from the previous analysis.
Stereotypes, gender, dubbing, animated films, sociolinguistic. Films are part of cross-cultural communication and a way of reflecting other identities and cultures.
The manner of presenting otherness is by differentiation and, as Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1998: 26) point out, it is “differences rather than sameness which we notice” and this tendency to highlight differences produces the creation of stereotypes.
Stereotypes reflect the way in which we perceive each other, especially individuals outside our group.
Fiona’s deviation from traditional stereotypes is stressed by the translator when relying on the male verbal strategy of using colloquial language (Pearson (‘whisk somebody away’) in Fiona’s formal discourse.
However, her deviation is not complete asshe can be said to succumb, in both the source and target texts, to her contradictory personality relying on the characteristic feminine verbal strategy of asking rhetorical questions (“Should it not be a wonderful, romantic moment?
Issues relating to gender will be discussed in the following section.
Over the past twenty years, much research in translation studies has been concerned with the study of translation as a place of reproduction and/or split from hegemonic representations of gender in Western cultures (Kamensky 1996, Simon 1996 or Holmes and Meyerhoff 2008).
While men have traditionally adopted the role of businessman and breadwinner of the family, for centuries women have been stereotypically portrayed according to four distinct characteristics: 1) A woman’s place is in the home; 2) Women do not make important decisions or do important things; 3) Women are dependent and need men’s protection; 4) Men regard women primarily as sexual objects and are not interested in women as people (Shrikhande 2003: 11).