A plan is given of Varro 's famous aviary, described by him in the third book. 3 In the first place you must get dogs of the proper age, for puppies and old dogs are no protection either to themselves or to sheep, and sometimes fall a prey to wild beasts. Most of the dogs represented on ancient monuments resemble Varro's description in regard to the short lower jaw, the straight back, and the pendent ears. In a former passage (ii, 7, 4) Crescentius trans- lated this vford plicati. n] OF DOGS 1217 ing outwards^ rather than inwards; the feet big and broad, spreading^ out as they walk; the toes well separated, claws hard and curved ; soles not horny or too hard, but rather as it were spongy and soft ; the body tucked in near the top of the thighs, the spine neither prominent nor curved, and the tail thick. If a wolf or any other animal has been wounded by this collar it makes all the other dogs safe from him, even i6 those that do not wear it.
In 1794 the Prince de Segur published one, together with a voluminous commentary on Varro, iii, 5, 9, but he introduced many violent and arbitrary alterations into the text, and his plan is demonstrably wrong in many important particulars. In shape'' they should be handsome ; of great size, with eyes black or yellow- ish, with nostrils to match ;^ the lips should be blackish or red, the upper ones neither too much turned up nor hanging down too low; the lower jaw short,* and the two teeth springing from it on the right and left side projecting a little, while the upper teeth should be straight rather than pro- 4Jecting;'' the incisors should be covered by the lip; the head and ears large and the latter broad and hanging ; the neck and throat thick, the parts between the joints long, the legs straight and turn- '- Novem partes. ii, i, 12: Harum una quaeque in se generalis partis hahet minimum novenas, quarum, in pecore parando necessariae quattuor, alterae in pascendo totidem, prae- terea com.una. The bark should be deep, the stretch of jaw' great, the colour preferably white,* because they are thus more easily recognized in the dark, S and their appearance should be lion-like. The number of dogs is usually made proportionate to the size of the flock, and it is thought to be in most cases proper for one dog to follow each shepherd.
So that this does not tell against the supposition that the place of these conversations was Sicily. The priest's slave in Horace, Epist., i, 10, 10, ran away because he was tired of eternal cakes. Pliny (viii, 44) speaks of hinni as being " unmanageable and incurably slow." Aristotle (An.
But the Parilia would be celebrated in the provinces as well as at Rome. The liha were, of course, cakes made of flour and milk, or of pounded cheese, fine flour, and eggs ; cf Cato, Ixxv. Columella (vi, 37, 5) : Qui ex equo et asina con- cepti generantur, quamvis u, patre nomen traxerint quod hinni vocantur matri per omnia magis similes sunt.
Sometimes, too, though suckled by his own mother, if he becomes familiar with them when he is quite young he seeks their company afterwards." Aristotle (H.
The nearest parallel I can find is Cicero, Ad Div., xvi, 17: valetudini fde- liter inserviendo. Columella (vi, 37, 9) says "not less than three, or more than ten years old." And a few lines earlier: " Thus reared the ass grows fond of mares.
The small size of the Pyg- mies, he continues, is accounted for in the same way (by illness of the foetus). Chaff, hay, and barley are given to him in addition.
Much care' is taken of the foster- mother, also that she may be able to give a supply of milk as food to the foal. When a mare has brought forth a he- or she-mule we bring it up and 5 feed it. They are brought to it at the same time as are horses, and similarly a groom is there to help the stallion when he performs the operation. Those who do not possess an ass which has been suckled by a mare, and want to keep an ass for stud purposes, pick the biggest and handsomest they can, and one that comes from a good nursery — in Arcadia, said the ancients ; but our experience leads us to prefer the Reatine country, where some stallions have been sold for ;^240 and even ;^320 apiece. Schneider translates cihum largius praebent, and the word must mean something of the kind. If you use him as a stallion younger, not only does he flag more quickly, but the offspring also are poorer.